Top 6 marketing articles from the last two weeks (3/7-3/21)

March 22, 2010

It has been a little while since I compiled my list of marketing articles and posts that I have found to be particularly insightful. Over the last couple of weeks, I’ve read several articles that I really enjoyed, and I thought I would highlight these, just in case you might have missed them (after all, a lot of people are on spring break these days).  I hope you find a few of these useful or interesting.  Enjoy!

CMOs, Go Beyond a PR Plan to Prepare for an Inevitable Product Crisis (Ad Age).  There have obviously been quite a few branding crises these days — between spokespeople losing their respect and credibility to massive product failures and recalls.  This article provides a great reminder of the plan that every brand leader should have in place before a crisis strikes.  The plan should not just have a well-planned PR component, but it must consider and address every touch point that the brand has with its target customers.  The article raises quite a few issues that might not be top of mind in the heat of the moment, but that are absolutely critical to the crisis management process.

Real-Time Brand Management:  Lessons from Virgin America’s Hellish Flight (Harvard Business Review). Continuing from the theme of the first article, this blog post presents a good miniature case study of how Virgin America quickly managed a perception crisis last week.  While this article does not necessarily highlight the plan that Virgin America had in place to mitigate the crisis, it does illustrate some additional things that brands can do routinely before a crisis occurs so that when it does, the brand can be managed in “real time”.

Wal*Mart, Target, Best Buy Named Most Valuable (Retail) Brands (Brandweek).  While the list of the most valuable retail brands is fairly interesting in itself, this article provides some good commentary regarding the strategies that helped brands grow and the strategies that undermined the value of brands.  One unsuccessful strategy mentioned is the “flight to price” strategy.  The analysis of the strategies is applicable to all types of consumer brands — not just retail brands.

Opinion:  Customer Service is Key Strategy (Brandweek).  Joseph Jaffe, the author of this editorial, writes, “During increasingly confusing, cluttered and complex times, what is it that really separates — or differentiates — one company, product, service or brand from another?”  He answers his own question that customer service or “servicing the customer” is the key differentiator for brands and should be the focal point for the marketing department.

How to Write a Mission Statement that Doesn’t Suck (Fast Company).  The author Dan Heath provides an entertaining yet very accurate assessment of how the mission statement development process can fail.  For anyone who has ever participated in developing a mission statement, this article is worth reading just for its humor and insight, if nothing else.  If you are currently developing or revamping your mission statement, this article provides great inspiration for what you should focus on, and what you should avoid.

Shopping Aisles at Cutting Edge of Consumer Research and Tech (Ad Age).  This article provides some interesting examples of what consumer packaged goods companies are doing to study their consumers during the act of shopping for products (from making the shopping list at home to purchasing in the store).  The emphasis on and investment in shopper marketing in the last few years has grown substantially among CPGs and retailers, and it is fascinating to understand some of the insights that have been uncovered.  If you are in the process of considering investing in or building a shopper marketing research program, this article worth reviewing.

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Five Questions To Ask Before You Do Focus Groups

March 9, 2010

In the last few months, I have received a lot of requests to moderate customer focus groups for a variety of clients.  I am thrilled to provide the service as customer research is one of my favorite aspects of marketing.  Interestingly, I am not the only one who feels this way.  Many marketers enjoy research, especially qualitative research such as focus groups, for a variety of reasons.  These include:

  • Marketers get to leave the office and their “desk job” for a few days to view the groups
  • Marketers get the opportunity to listen to their customers talk about their brands and products
  • Marketers may receive research results quickly (they are viewing the research real-time)
  • Focus groups can be perceived as a less expensive method of research compared to other types of studies.

Unfortunately, these factors can sometimes lead marketers to “overuse” focus groups and execute them when they aren’t the appropriate tool for answering marketers’ questions.

To help my clients assess if focus groups are the correct method of research for their needs, and to ensure that the research is designed and executed most effectively, I ask my clients a series of questions at the start of each project.  My hope is that these questions are helpful to any marketing or research manager who is seeking customer insights through qualitative research.

  1. Are you trying to count something or are you looking to explore something? If you want a count, then do not do focus groups.  Focus groups are designed to help you understand how your customers think and make decisions.  Focus groups can provide ideas and feedback, but they cannot be used to provide a definite, statistically significant answer.  To take this a step further, often it is assumed that if a focus group contains eight respondents, you have a sample size of eight.  In actuality, due to group dynamics, a group of eight people is only a sample size of one (the group is the unit of measurement).
  2. What decisions will be made with the information from the research? It is very important to know how your information will be used.  For instance, if the information will be used to make a go/no go decision on a significant investment, you may want to consider if an unquantifiable technique is really the right tool.  Additionally, knowing what decisions will be made will guide the questions that must be answered in the research (see #3).
  3. What are the questions that you must answer? There should be about three to six specific questions that the research should be designed to answer.  These are the research objectives.  The marketers and researchers included in the research must be very clear on what these questions are.  If these questions are not specified in advance, it will be sheer luck if the research uncovers the answers.  An additional note:  if in a focus group there are more than six objectives, you likely have too many things you are trying to accomplish (and therefore you run the risk of not accomplishing everything adequately).  If you have more than six objectives, you should consider doing more than one set of focus groups.
  4. What do we think the answers to these questions are? Scientists test hypotheses in their research.  Marketers should do the same.  If you have a hypothesis for the answer to each research question, this will help the moderator turn to probing on why an answer in a focus group might be different from what you hypothesized.  By enabling the moderator to focus probing on why an answer is different, you will get much richer, insightful information from your groups.  With that said, once you form your hypotheses, be mindful to listen objectively to the research.  It can be tempting to selectively listen only for evidence that supports your hypotheses.  Make an effort to listen to and absorb all of the information that your focus groups provide, whether it supports your hypotheses or not.
  5. Who is the target respondent? The usefulness of focus groups is significantly dependent on the respondents who are participating.  If the group does not contain the correct target respondents, the results from the groups can be essentially meaningless.  For any focus group you consider doing, think carefully about who you need in the groups to answer the questions.  Too many times, marketers make the mistake of simply asking for their standard customer demographic target to be present in the groups – but perhaps they need something more, such as current non-category users or lapsed users of the brand.  Think very carefully about the questions you are trying to answer and who are the right people that you need to hear from to answer these questions.  Do not assume that your target respondent is just your target customer demographic.  It is likely that your target respondent is more than just that.

Those are the questions I like to focus on before initiating qualitative research for clients.  I would like to think that many marketers also ask themselves these questions before they start a qualitative project.  However, I think it is good to have this checklist handy for your next piece of research – just to make sure that your research will be as successful and as useful as possible.